Photo by Alfredo Colon
Long-tailed dance fly (Rhamphomyia longicauda) is a small, black, long-legged fly. It is commonly found from May to July in deciduous woods near water. The wings are long and black. The head is round with large bright orange or red eyes. On the female, the middle and hind legs have a fringe of long, black, bristly hairs.
Every evening around sunset, males and females collect in same-sex swarms. Females and fly up and down, the behavior that gives this family its common name “dance-flies”. Females cannot hunt for prey. They receive protein from males as gifts in exchange for copulation. They swallow air, filling and extending their abdomen outward, saucer-like, falsely signaling males that their eggs are nearing maturity. The long hairy legs wrap around the abdomen, making it appear even larger. Males are attracted to females that have largest swollen abdomens and hairiest legs. An individual will break off and join the other swarm to select a mate.
Photo by Alfredo Colon
Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) is relatively small for a beetle but relatively large for a leaf beetle. Adults are ¼″ to 7 ⁄16″ long and about ⅛″ wide. The body is oval when viewed from above and dome-shaped when viewed from the side. The wing covers are pale yellow with five black lines on each side. The are no similar species in Minnesota.
Prior to European settlement, the Colorado potato beetle was found only in Colorado and neighboring states. The potato was introduced into North America in the 1600s and began to be widely grown in the early 1700s. By 1840 the potato reached the insects home range. By 1859 the insect had switched to the potato as its preferred host, and by 1874 it had spread all the way to the east coast. It is now present across North America, Europe, and Asia.
Colorado potato beetle is a serious crop pest to potato growers. The insect rapidly evolves resistance to chemical pesticides. Many insecticides that once successfully controlled the beetle are no longer effective.
Photo by Alfredo Colon
Four-lined plant bug (Poecilocapsus lineatus) is a small, soft-bodied, colorful, true bug. It is common in northeastern and midwestern North America, including Minnesota. It is easily identified by the bright yellow or green body with four black stripes and the orange head. It can be seen from May to July in meadows, gardens, agricultural fields, and around homes.
Four-lined plant bug is considered a pest due to the damage it causes to ornamental plants. Adults and larvae feed on the leaves of herbaceous plants, especially those in the mint and aster families. Leaf damage appears as small, 1 ⁄16″ or less in diameter, light or dark spots on the leaf surface. The color of the spot varies with the species of the host plant. The spots are collapsed leaf tissue which eventually falls out leaving small holes. Larvae cause more leaf damage than adults.
Photo by Dan W. Andree
Six-spotted tiger beetle (Cicindela sexguttata) is a small predaceous, tiger beetle. It is probably the most common species of tiger beetle in eastern North America, possibly the most common on the continent. It is found in the southern two-thirds of Minnesota. Adults and larval burrows are very often seen on paths in the woods. Six-spotted tiger beetle can be thought of as a woodland path species.
The head and body are shiny, iridescent, and usually metallic green, occasionally blue. Flashy tiger beetles (subtribe Cicindelini) are usually identified by the color and pattern of marks on their wing coverings. The common name of this species comes from white spots on the wing covers. There are usually six small spots, often eight, rarely ten, and occasionally none.
Japanese hop (Humulus japonicus) is an invasive, prohibited noxious weed in Minnesota. It can form dense mats several feet deep covering and inhibiting the growth of all other vegetation. It is relatively new in the state. The first recorded sighting was in 1992. To date, it has been reported in just four counties in the southeastern corner of the state, and in Hennepin and Scott Counties in the metro area.
Japanese hop closely resembles the native common hop (Humulus lupulus). Japanese hop is distinguished by the leaf stalk that is as long or longer than the blade; the leaf blade that has 5, 7, or 9 lobes and is rough to the touch on the underside; the stiff hairs on the margins of the bracts on the fruiting structure; and the lack of stalked, yellowish glands on the fruiting bracts, anthers, and seed capsules. Also, unlike common hop, the fruiting structure is not fragrant when crushed, and it cannot be used for making beer.