Plasmodial slime molds are single-celled organisms, masses of protoplasm without cell walls and with thousands of nuclei. Like animals, they move and violently eject unwanted inorganic materials. Like amoeba, they feed by engulfing particles of food. Like fungi, they reproduce by producing fruit bodies containing spores that are distributed by wind. Formerly classified as fungi, plasmodial slime molds are now known to be unrelated.
Dog vomit slime mold (Fuligo septica) is a plasmodial slime mold. It has a worldwide distribution, occurring on every continent except Greenland and Antarctica. It is often found in urban areas from May to October. It grows on the rotten wood of stumps, logs, and wood mulches; on garden soil enriched with manure; and also on living plants. It may migrate one meter or more to nearby food sources. It feeds on bacteria, spores of fungi and non-flowering plants, protozoa, and nonliving organic matter. Its common name accurately describes its appearance. It is not edible.
Dog vomit slime mold may appear as a cushion-like mass, a slimy sheet, or a crust-like sheet. When it first appears it is white to yellow and slimy. At some point it transforms into a large, cushion-like, white or yellowish fruiting body covered by a brittle crust. Breaking the crust away reveals a dull black spore mass.
Canada darner (Aeshna canadensis) is a large mosaic darner. It occurs across the northern United States and southern Canada. It is the most common blue darner in Minnesota, where it occurs throughout the state except for the western prairie counties. It is a late-season dragonfly, not appearing until late June and flying to the end of September.
Adults are about 2¾″ long. The body is dark brown with blue, green, or yellow markings that darken in cool temperatures. Males always have mostly blue markings. Females have three color forms; blue, green, and yellow. Most females are green form. Blue form females are rare.
There are at least ten blue darner dragonfly species found in Minnesota and they are difficult to tell apart. Canada darner is most easily distinguished by the lateral stripes on the thorax. The front stripe is deeply notched, is narrowed toward the top, and has a narrow rearward extension (flag) at the top. The rear lateral stripe is not notched. Like all mosaic dragonflies, there is a black T-shaped spot on the upper part of the face just below where the eyes meet. This is best seen when viewed from above. There is no bold black horizontal stripe across the middle of the face.